Born: 9 January 1922
Dying at the age of 89;(10 November 2011 in the United States)
About HARGOBIND Khorana:
Har gobid Khorana is an Indian-American molecular biologist from Indo-Punjabi origin. Har Gobid Khorana, a native Indian biochemist, was responsible for the production of the first synthetic gene in his laboratory. The work of Khorana is an important scientific milestone of the twentieth century. It brought closer to the day when synthetic DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) can be introduced into defective human tissues to bring its repair or treat mentally retarded people and turn it into human smarter and healthier. Its synthesis of RNA (ribonucleic acid), capable of reproduction in the laboratory, is an artificial step towards the creation of life. In fact, research has opened a new industry called genetic engineering in science. Har Gobid Khorana, along with Robert W. and Marshall W. Nirenberg, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in the year 1968. In the same year, Khorana also received the Louisa Gross Horwitz Award from Columbia University with Nirenberg. In 1966, he became a citizen of the United States and eventually received the National Science Medal.
Har gobid Khorana beginning of life:
Har Gobid Khorana was born on 1922 in Raipur, Punjab (today in Pakistan). His father was the potter of the city or of the tax agent. Khorana attended D.A.V. High School in fine and took his M.Sc from the University of Punjab in Lahore. On a government scholarship in 1945, he went to England and received a PhD from the University of Liverpool in the year 1948. Har Gobid Khorana spent a year in Zurich 1948-1949, as a postdoctoral student at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.
Har gobid Khorana Race:
Har gobid Khorana returned to England in the year 1950 and spent two years on a scholarship in Cambridge and began investigating nucleic acids under Sir Alexander Todd and connoisseurs. His interest in proteins and nucleic acids increased at the time. 1952 he went to the University of British Columbia in Vancouver in a job offer and a group to work on the field of biologically interesting esters and phosphate nucleic acids with the inspiration of Dr. Gordon M. Shrum and the Ientífico Council of Dr. Jack Campbell. Har Gobid Khorana joined the University of Wisconsin as a professor in 1960 and co-director of the Institute of Enzymatic Research and professor of Biochemistry from 1962 to 1970 and continued his research. During this time, it also reached the citizenship of us. Khorana continued the investigation of nucleic acid synthesis and prepared the first artificial copy of a yeast gene. Har Gobid Khorana is also the first to synthesize the compensations, i.e. the nucleotide chains. These tailor-made parts of artificial genes are widely used in the biology labs for sequencing, cloning and engineering of new plants and animals. The distributions have become indispensable tools in biotechnology. In 1970, he became Professor Alfred Sloan of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA, where he continued working.
He left Wisconsin for with in 1970 and moved to 2007.
His wife died in 2001 and his daughter Emily died in 1978. He survived two children, Julie and Dave, both from Massachusetts.
Har Gobid Khorana has also worked with RNA with three repetitive units and thus has produced three different amino acid chains. In this way, Har Gobid Khorana and his team have found that the mother of all codes, the biological language common to all living organisms, is written in three words of letters, each containing three nucleotide codes for an amino acid Specific. Khorana was also the first to isolated ligase DNA, an enzyme that binds DNA fragments together. This invention by Dr. Khorana has become automated and commercialized. The Nobel Conference of Har Gobid Khorana was delivered on 12 December 1968.
Achievements of Har Gobid Khorana:
Khorana is the recipient of numerous awards and honors for his performance. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in the year 1968. An intensive worker in the interpretation of the genetic code and its functioning in protein synthesis, har gobid Khorana was also awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Award at Columbia University in the same year. He also received the Distinguished Watumull Foundation Service Award, Hawaii at 1968; American Academy of Achievement Award, Pennsylvania, 1971; Padma Vibhushan, India's highest presidential award in 1972; J. C. Bose medal also in 1972 and the Willard Gibbs Medal of the Chicago section of the American Chemical Company on 1973-74.
He was also elected a member of the Washington National Academy of Sciences, as well as a Fellow of the American Association for the Promotion of science. In the year 1971, Har Gobid Khorana was a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and 1974 Honorary Fellow of the Indian Chemical Society.
Har Gobid Khorana was married to Esther Elizabeth Ghimie of Swiss descent in 1952. They have three children, Julia Elizabeth, Emily Anne and Dave Roy. Khorana is now located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America